The average person spends approximately 6.5 hours per day online – almost as long as a full working day. Online activities can range from time spent on social media, shopping, conducting banking transactions, sending work-related communications, or performing data entry. Each poses an opportunity for sensitive, personally identifiable information (PII) to fall into the wrong hands. All the more reason for new cybersecurity career paths to emerge, helping keep data safe for people and organizations worldwide and on the web.
Learn more about existing and emerging opportunities in the field of cybersecurity and how new technologies will require qualified professionals to help thwart malicious attacks online.
Table of Contents:
- Understanding What is Cybersecurity
- Educational Requirements for Cybersecurity
- Highly Valued Cybersecurity Certifications
- Entry Level Certifications
- CompTIA Linux+
- CompTIA Security+
- CompTIA Network+
- CompTIA Pentest+
- CompTIA Cloud+
- Mid- to Senior-Level Certifications
- CompTIA CySA+
- CompTIA CASP+
- Certified Information Security Manager (CISM)
- Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP)
- Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH)
- Certified Cybersecurity Professional (CCSP)
- Entry Level Certifications
- Highly Valued Cybersecurity Certifications
- Five Main Cybersecurity Pathways
- 1. Network Security
- 2. Cloud Security
- 3. Application Security
- 4. Critical Infrastructure Security
- 5. Internet of Things (IoT) Security
- Cybersecurity Career Advancement & Growth Opportunities
- Entry-Level Roles in Cybersecurity
- Cybersecurity Analyst
- Security Engineer
- IT Auditor
- Intermediate Roles in Cybersecurity
- Cybersecurity Consultant
- Penetration Tester
- Senior Roles in Cybersecurity
- Chief Information Security Officer
- Cybersecurity Architect
- Entry-Level Roles in Cybersecurity
- How Do I Choose a Career Path in Cybersecurity?
- Moving into Cybersecurity from Another Field
- In-Demand Cybersecurity Skills
- Network Security
- Penetration Testing
- Application Security
- Cloud Security
- Data Security
- Risk Assessment and Management
- Programming and Database Languages
- Digital Forensics and Incident Response (DFIR)
- Threat Intelligence and Hunting
- Tips For Starting a Career in Cybersecurity
Understanding What is Cybersecurity
Cybersecurity refers to the procedural science and measures taken to protect organizations and people from malicious attacks that could compromise sensitive online information. Cybersecurity operates to safeguard data, networks, and devices from cyberattacks.
Cyberattacks can take various forms, ranging from malware that infiltrates a computer network and steals sensitive information to phishing scams like fraudulent emails, as well as ransomware, which holds encrypted data hostage until an organization pays the hacker in exchange for relinquishing their data. Cybersecurity takes a proactive approach to assess potential threats, evaluate network vulnerabilities, and prevent cyberattacks from happening in the first place.
Cyberattacks can be costly, and hackers don’t discriminate. They’re as likely to target small businesses as larger corporations and government agencies. A report by IBM noted that 38% of cyberattacks resulted in lost business of $1.59 million and that over 44% of all cyberattacks compromised customer PII at a rate of $180 per record.
Cybersecurity professionals help organizations protect their data as a valuable asset and foster trust with an organization’s customers, putting them at ease that their sensitive information is in good hands.
Educational Requirements for Cybersecurity
Although having a formal degree to launch a career in cybersecurity is not necessary, many organizations require at least a bachelor’s degree in computer science, cybersecurity, or a related field. Some cybersecurity professionals elect to further their studies after years in the field, working to obtain a master’s or doctorate degree to advance their skill set.
Highly Valued Cybersecurity Certifications
As you progress in your cybersecurity career journey, numerous certifications can help you continually level up your skill set and increase your earning potential, especially as technology evolves and new threats emerge.
Some of the most highly valued cybersecurity certifications can help distinguish professionals from others in the field, demonstrating a firm working knowledge of the latest cybersecurity practices. These certifications require candidates to pass an exam and must be renewed periodically.
Entry Level Certifications
If you’re starting your career in cybersecurity, there are several useful certifications for entry-level professionals, including:
This certification helps cybersecurity professionals prove competency in new technologies, with a specific focus on Linux and the cloud, as well as automation and using infrastructure as code and containers.
The CompTIA Security+ certification is offered by the Computing Technology Industry Association (CompTIA), which provides training, certifications and shares research findings with roughly 75 million computer and technology industry professionals. The CompTIA Security+ exam is a great entry point for those newer to the field, demonstrating proficiency in the baseline skills needed to work in cybersecurity. The U.S. Department of Defense approves the CompTIA Security+ certification and indicates that a practitioner is adept at hands-on problem-solving concerning various security measures and threats.
For entry-level professionals pursuing a career in IT infrastructure and troubleshooting network management, the CompTIA Network+ can be an ideal certification. This certification emphasizes security concepts, cloud computing, and a variety of skills to protect information networks.
The CompTIA Pentest+ certification demonstrates proficiency in penetration testing (or “ethical hacking”), knowledge of current trends and threats, and vulnerability management. Entry-level professionals who earn this certification develop the skills required to probe cloud, web, IoT, and other environments for vulnerabilities that could compromise sensitive information for organizations.
As cloud computing and storing information in the cloud has increased in prevalence, the CompTIA Cloud+ certification equips cybersecurity professionals with the experience required to protect cloud-based information and automation techniques to secure a variety of cloud environments.
Mid- to Senior-Level Certifications
Cybersecurity professionals with an eye on mid-career or senior-level roles can help expand their knowledge and qualifications with more advanced certifications, including:
The CompTIA Cybersecurity Analyst+ (CySA) is an advanced certification that arms professionals with knowledge of current trends, including detecting threats in cloud and hybrid environments, endpoint detection and response (EDR), and incident response and vulnerability best practices. In addition to technical skills, the CompTIA CySA+ emphasizes best practices in communicating incident response action and escalation plans to various stakeholders at a variety of levels throughout an organization.
The CompTIA Advanced Security Practitioner (CASP+) certification is geared towards cybersecurity professionals with in security architect or senior security engineer roles. This performance-based certification employs a hands-on approach for practitioners (as opposed to those who operate in more of a managerial capacity). The CompTIA CASP+ demonstrates proficiency across a wide range of disciplines, including cloud native, on-premise, and hybrid environments, alongside assessment and readiness for enterprise-level cybersecurity.
Many community colleges offer basic-level cybersecurity classes that are mapped to certifications. These courses are a great pathway to transfer to a bachelor’s program. They are also a good way for someone with a non-Cyber bachelor’s degree to build up core technical skills and then transfer to a Master’s program/
Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP)
The CISSP is administered by the Information Systems Security Certification Consortium (ISC)2 and is considered a global standard of excellence in the cybersecurity field. To earn this certification, a candidate must display knowledge in eight domains of information security:
- Security and risk management
- Asset security
- Security architecture and engineering
- Communications and network security
- Identity and access management
- Security assessment and testing
- Security operations
- Software development security
CISSP candidates must have at least five years of professional experience in two or more of the eight domains and pass the exam. Those without field experience can still take the CISSP, so long as they have a bachelor’s degree in a related field.
Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH)
Offered by the EC-Council, the CEH certification designates a professional as an ethical hacker, sometimes referred to as a “penetration hacker.” Ethical hackers know how malicious hackers operate, understanding how they bypass systems and crack encryption. Essentially, ethical hackers are the “good guys” who know how the “bad guys” operate and leverage their skillset to protect information. The CEH exam tests a candidate’s knowledge of ethical hacking methodologies, penetration testing, legal and ethical considerations, and more.
Certified Information Security Manager (CISM) (Mid to Senior)
The Certified Information Security Manager (CISM) certification is offered by the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA), which operates worldwide and sets the tone for guidance, education, and credentialing for information security professionals. The CISM certification stresses risk assessment and implementing effective governance for a proactive approach to incidents, equipping professionals with the tools to prevent or mitigate cyberattacks. Over 70% of cybersecurity professionals saw an improvement in the efficacy of their work, and 42% were able to earn more as a result of becoming CISM-certified.
The CompTIA Security+ certification is offered by the Computing Technology Industry Association (CompTIA), which provides training, certifications, and shares research findings with roughly 75 million computer and technology industry professionals. The CompTIA Security+ exam is a great entry point for those newer to the field, demonstrating proficiency in the baseline skills needed to work in cybersecurity. The U.S. Department of Defense approves the CompTIA Security+ certification and indicates that a practitioner is adept at hands-on problem-solving concerning various security measures and threats.
Certified Cybersecurity Professional (CCSP)
The Certified Cybersecurity Professional (CCSP) certification, offered by the Institute for Certification of Computing Professionals (ICCP), is a comprehensive exam encompassing cyber risk assessment; security data governance; data, asset, identity projection; penetration testing, and more. The exam is offered at five levels of certification (foundation, practitioner, master, principal, and executive management), each with different criteria for certification and varying duration of time to complete the exam. This certification is reviewed and supported by former National Security Agency officers and is an ideal certification to pursue for cybersecurity professionals at all stages of their careers.
Five Main Cybersecurity Pathways
Cybersecurity is a vast field and growing even more significant with every innovation – and potential avenues for cyberattacks, as a result. If you’re considering a career in cybersecurity, there are five main pathways where a professional can focus their abilities, helping keep data, networks, and devices safe for all. While there is some overlap between these pathways, each offers a defined career path for professionals to apply their talents.
1. Network Security
Network security entails safeguarding computer systems by analyzing risk. This discipline encompasses developing more secure software, designing and improving systems to be more secure via the creation and use of firewalls, intrusion detection and prevention systems, encryption, and more. Network security is ever-changing as new threats and vulnerabilities emerge with new technologies.
2. Cloud Security
Cloud security focuses on protecting information stored in “the cloud.” Cloud-based communication operates on permission settings and levels, allowing designated personnel to access various tiers of secure information. In 2022, over 60% of all corporate data is stored in the cloud, including sensitive financial and PII information of employees and customers and proprietary company information. That number only stands to grow, as will the need for cloud security professionals with a deep understanding of risk assessment, vulnerability management, and concepts like containerization and serverless computing to protect data stored in the cloud.
3. Application Security
Application security involves developing, testing, and deploying security features in such applications as software, smartphone apps, and even video games played online. A 2022 vulnerability statistic report discovered that one out of every ten vulnerabilities in internet-facing applications is high-risk or critical. That risk rose to 15% if an application involved processing online payments. With this in mind, application security professionals are a strong line of defense against vulnerabilities. They create security patches, identify potential attack areas, update software, and strengthen application encryption programs.
4. Critical Infrastructure Security
Critical infrastructure security focuses on protecting systems and networks essential to the well-being of a nation – including health, safety, energy, and economic prosperity. This discipline safeguards 16 critical infrastructure sectors designated by the Cybersecurity & Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) from cyberattacks that can compromise quality of life. These infrastructure sectors, including dams, energy, financial services, communications, food and agriculture, and healthcare – all of which have a digital component that could leave them vulnerable if subjected to a cyberattack.
5. Internet of Things (IoT) Security
The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to a network of devices that connects to other devices to exchange information via software and sensors. The IoT can involve everything from smart appliances (“Alexa, can you play songs to analyze network security risks?”) to manufacturing equipment. The IoT can also include devices that control critical infrastructure systems – including dams, energy grids, and more.
Cybersecurity Career Advancement & Growth Opportunities
Today, individuals, businesses, and global economies depend on the ease of communication, transactions, and supply chain management the Internet provides. With that in mind, cybersecurity only stands to grow to safeguard these systems that play such a crucial role in daily life.
Whether you’re just starting a career in cybersecurity or looking to advance your career, there are a variety of roles to consider.
Entry Level Roles in Cybersecurity
For recent graduates or professionals with one to two years of relevant work experience, several entry-level cybersecurity roles can be rewarding or offer a springboard to more advanced positions and responsibilities.
- Cybersecurity Analyst: A cybersecurity analyst monitors a company or organization’s networks for security breaches and investigates computer and network system vulnerabilities to prevent data theft and PII leaks. They leverage their deep understanding of operating systems and programming language to conduct penetration testing and devise plans to protect data. In addition, cybersecurity analysts use a variety of tools and software, including firewalls and encryption programs to protect data and are continually up-to-date on the latest IT trends. They also help roll out protocols to users within the organization, monitoring compliance to ensure safety measures are followed to prevent cyberattacks.
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), security analysts earn a median annual salary of $102,600. Approximately 10% of cybersecurity analysts earn roughly $166,000 annually, and the top-paying industries for these professionals are those that focus on finance, insurance, information, and enterprise management. The need for these professionals is anticipated to grow by 35% – significantly higher than average, compared to all other occupations. Does a career as a cybersecurity analyst interest you? Take a deeper look at how to become a cybersecurity analyst.
- Security Engineer: A security engineer designs, implements, and updates information security systems to protect an organization’s data. These individuals often work alongside cybersecurity analysts to conduct penetration testing and build strategic defense and response plans. Security engineers also work to enforce company-wide compliance with these proactive security measures. On average, information security engineers earn an annual median salary of $98,740 and can expect to see between an 8% to 10% growth in the need for those with their skills before 2031.
- IT Auditor: An IT auditor evaluates an organization’s computer networks and systems to ensure they run smoothly and are compliant with the most recent security protocols. Indeed reports that the average annual salary for an IT auditor is $109,384.
Intermediate Roles in Cybersecurity
Cybersecurity professionals who have earned a bachelor’s degree in a related field or have more than five years of work experience can find themselves in exciting roles that put them on the front lines of innovation, safeguarding vast stores of data and information systems.
- Cybersecurity Consultant: A cybersecurity consultant works with businesses to understand their needs. These professionals devise customized strategies to secure computer and information systems. They develop tools to pinpoint vulnerabilities and then work with teams to ensure employees adopt mitigation strategies and leverage the proper tools and software to mitigate exploitation at both the employee and company levels. Indeed states that the average base salary for a cybersecurity consultant is $103,011 annually.
- Penetration Tester: Sometimes referred to as an “ethical hacker,” a penetration tester is the first line of defense against malicious hackers. They often have the same skill set as hackers with bad intentions, instead using their skills to evaluate vulnerabilities and risk, as well as develop defensive strategies to prevent information systems from hackers. O-Net, a division of the U.S. Department of Labor, notes that the average median annual salary for ethical hackers is $98,740. It’s expected that the need for penetration testers will increase between 8% and 10% before 2031, which is faster than average.
Senior Roles in Cybersecurity
Senior-level cybersecurity professionals typically work for nearly a decade in the field, earning the skills to move into more advanced roles, head up teams, and take on greater responsibilities. These individuals have often earned a master’s degree or higher and have obtained several relevant certifications designating them as a specialist in a given area (or more) of expertise.
- Chief Information Security Officer: A chief information security officer (CISO) operates at the highest level of an organization, overseeing cybersecurity and information technology measures. They work with other senior executives to craft effective security measures. They interface with technical teams and overarching leadership in a company that may not share their technical background. Their job is to communicate threats and mitigation measures to all levels clearly and are accountable for the efficacy of organization-wide cybersecurity plans. The median annual salary for a CISO is $237,025.
- Cybersecurity Architect: Another senior executive-level role, a cybersecurity architect can work within a corporate organization or even in a government capacity, such as CISA. These individuals – sometimes called information assurance (IA) architects or information security architects – design, integrate, and provide documentation for cybersecurity systems and networks, including devising multi-level security requirements or classifications of data permissions. They evaluate and upgrade older systems to combat new threats and pinpoint vulnerabilities.
Beyond programming skills, a cybersecurity architect must also be adept at business fundamentals such as crisis management and disaster recovery and possess the ability to facilitate communications with people at all levels of an organization – technical and non-technical. On average, a cybersecurity architect earns $147,461 per year.
How Do I Choose a Career Path in Cybersecurity?
If you’re fascinated by technology, enjoy staying up-to-date on the latest developments, and enjoy sleuthing out ways to outwit hackers, a career in cybersecurity can be rewarding. In addition to helping businesses and government agencies protect highly sensitive information, cybersecurity also offers a means to protect everyday people from having their data fall into the wrong hands. As technology continues to evolve, so does the cost of cybercrimes. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)’s 2022 Internet Crime Report observed 800,944 instances of cybercrime reported, totaling a loss of $10.2 billion. This monetary figure marked a nearly 48% increase from 2021.
Choosing a path in cybersecurity first starts with learning about the different arms of this discipline and the skills, certification, and educational requirements for each. From there, you can consider an area of concentration. For instance, if you enjoy working with large data sets, programming, and analyzing/building networks, you may consider a path as a security engineer. If you like unraveling mysteries, having an eye for pinpointing system vulnerabilities, and staying several steps ahead of hackers, you may want a career as a penetration tester. These are just a few options available, and the field of cybersecurity will no doubt continue to evolve with a need for new roles as technology moves at a breakneck pace.
Moving into Cybersecurity from Another Field
You may be attracted to cybersecurity due to its almost limitless potential. Not only is it a rewarding career for the curious-minded, but cybersecurity is an in-demand profession that only stands to grow alongside technological systems that impact daily life. A career in cybersecurity also offers an above-average salary and opportunities to learn and apply skills that can help give others greater peace of mind. Switching careers and taking a new path in cybersecurity can be challenging but certainly worth it.
Suppose you already have a background in computer science, engineering, data science, or a related field. In that case, it can be easier to make that leap as you may already have some of the systems knowledge and programming skills required of cybersecurity professionals. For those in unrelated fields, it’s possible to make a career shift, but it may require going back to school to learn more practical aspects of cybersecurity.
That said, if you’re considering switching to a career in cybersecurity from an unrelated field, it can help to have a plan to reskill to transition successfully. For instance, teachers may leverage transferable skills such as critical thinking, problem-solving, and clearly communicating complex concepts. As another example, former military members may also leverage their experience with problem-solving, working in a high-pressure and high-stakes environment, risk assessment, and incident response. Veterans can also look to the Transition Assistance Program (TAP) and organizations like Operation Code to train for civilian re-entry in a technology or cybersecurity capacity.
In-Demand Cybersecurity Skills
Cybersecurity is a growing field that only requires a more boots-on-the-ground approach to protect computer and data networks from would-be hackers bent on exploiting PII and sensitive information. Cybersecurity professionals must be knowledgeable in various skills and may choose to hone several areas of expertise to designate themselves in the field. Here are some of the most in-demand cyber skills to consider as areas of focus:
Network security encompasses a broad range of skills, including working with firewalls on incoming and outgoing information on a network, setting up remote access VPNs, email security, data loss prevention, and more.
Penetration testing (or “ethical hacking”) involves poking and prodding at networks to see where there may be vulnerabilities that hackers can exploit, then developing the appropriate failsafe to keep networks and their data secure.
Application security refers to keeping various apps (such as software on a computer, smartphone applications, or even online video games) safe from nefarious individuals who may attempt to infect them with malware. These attacks may cause applications to malfunction or steal PII from those who use the applications. Application security involves creating strong authentication and secure session management to prevent unwanted access, among other skills.
Cloud security focuses on safeguarding data and information stored in the cloud, allowing users across an organization to access and collaborate. Cloud security works to protect information networks against data theft, enact protocols that mitigate data leaks (either via human error or system vulnerabilities), create levels of access permissions, and develop a system of data recovery in the event of data loss.
Data security is the wing of cybersecurity that focuses on keeping digital information safe from unauthorized use, theft, or corruption. Data security professionals must have a working knowledge of networks and the ability to analyze them for risk, make a plan to proactively identify vulnerabilities, create methods and procedures to protect sensitive data, and have a plan in place in the event of a data breach to minimize damage.
Risk Assessment and Management
A critical skill for all cybersecurity professionals, risk assessment, and management involves identifying vulnerabilities and how various threats may capitalize on them and the severity of those consequences. There is a five-step process involved in risk assessment and management, which involves cataloging information assets (data and data systems), assessing risk (identifying vulnerabilities), analyzing risk (how severe the risk may be should those vulnerabilities be exploited), setting security controls, and monitoring and reviewing the effectiveness of security measures.
Programming and Database Languages
Cybersecurity professionals must have a knowledge of programming and database languages, including Java, Python, SQL, C/C++ (for more advanced practitioners), Ruby, Linux, and PHP. Programming languages are constantly evolving, but cybersecurity professionals should understand them to better understand the ways hackers can infiltrate a system and learn to proactively think like cybercriminals think in order to thwart malicious attacks.
Digital Forensics and Incident Response (DFIR)
DIFR combines two disciplines in one: digital forensics involves an investigative component, collecting, preserving, and analyzing forensic evidence of cyber attacks; incident response is more of an administrative and mitigation tactic involved in either containing the damage of a cyber attack, halting it, or proactively preventing it through various analytical and deployment measures. DIFR helps organizations continue with minimized disruption, as well as surface evidence to prosecute hackers or support an insurance claim for any damages due to a cyber attack.
Linux is an open-source operating system that powers server and desktops. Systems with the Linux operating system are used for many cybersecurity related functions like penetration testing and incident response. Attackers also use this operating system for malicious purposes. Kali Linux is an example of a Linux distribution used for penetration testing. Security Onion is an example of a Linux distribution used for network security monitoring, threat hunting, and incident response.
Threat Intelligence and Hunting
Threat intelligence involves collecting and analyzing data to better track hackers and understand their motives and behaviors to ward off future threats or attacks. While threat intelligence focuses on the people behind a cyber attack, threat hunting focuses on the malware that a hacker may have planted within a network that may go previously undetected and slipped through a system’s initial defenses.
Cryptography shares roots with much older war intelligence tactics used by World War I and World War II code talkers who used different (spoken and written) languages to encrypt secret messages. As it pertains to cybersecurity, modern cryptography involves preventing unauthorized access to sensitive information transmitted through networks by encrypting it with programming languages and codes so that it cannot be read by those who are not the intended recipients and who do not have permissions or keys to read the information. Cryptography can be helpful for cybersecurity professionals and programmers to learn to devise systems to keep data safe.
Tips for Starting a Career in Cybersecurity
If you’re considering starting a career in cybersecurity, you can begin by researching the different wings of the cybersecurity field. By learning more about network security, risk management, penetration testing, incident response, and others, you can better understand which avenue to pursue.
Joining online forums and discussion groups — such as those for cybersecurity professionals and enthusiasts on LinkedIn or Reddit – can be an excellent springboard, allowing you to peer behind the curtain and connect with professionals in the field who can offer you career advice and insights. Also, consider subscribing to industry newsletters or attending webinars, if possible, which can help clue you into emerging trends, threats, and advancements in the field, as technology and cybersecurity are changing rapidly.
Once you better understand cybersecurity as an industry, you’ll want to pursue formal education and credentialing. Look to universities and programs that offer a robust cybersecurity curriculum and that touch on areas of particular interest to you. When enrolled in a program, you can also apply for internships – potentially tapping into a network of connections made along the way.
Consider joining professional associations, which can help you bolster your credentials and connect you with mentors and peers in cybersecurity. For instance, the National Council of ISACs (Information Sharing and Analysis Centers) connects various ISAC organizations in a collaborative effort to share cybersecurity strategies and best practices. Another professional organization to consider is the National Cyber Security Alliance (NCSA), which spearheads the Stay Safe Online initiative, enhancing public awareness around protecting information and safely using the internet.
Take Your Career in Cybersecurity to the Next Level with National University
Whether you’re considering starting a career in cybersecurity or want to advance further, National University can help guide you down the right path. Recognized as a National Center of Academic Excellence (NCAE) in Cyber Defense (CAE-CD) through 2028 by the National Security Agency (NSA), National University offers a world-class education in the growing field of cybersecurity and can help unlock a wealth of professional opportunities.
A Bachelor of Science in Cybersecurity from National University can ground you in foundational technologies around networking and operating systems, and allow you to dive further into areas of concentration such as Computer Network Defense, Digital Forensics, and Information Technology Management.
For those who have already been working in cybersecurity or a related field, National University offers a Master of Science in Cybersecurity and Doctor of Philosophy in Cybersecurity (PhD-CY). Masters candidates can hone their expertise through a rigorous curriculum that gives them the tools to design, build, and deploy cybersecurity measures, protecting information for organizations and people. Masters candidates can choose between one of two specializations: Ethical Hacking and Pen Testing or Enterprise Cybersecurity Management.
National University’s PhD-CY program prepares candidates for senior-level careers in cybersecurity, equipping them with the skills required to monitor network vulnerabilities, as well as explore governance, frameworks, and standards to mitigate cyber threats. Candidates can choose from one of four specializations: General and Technology; Global Strategy and Operations; Governance, Risk, and Compliance; and Secure Cloud Computing. Regardless of where you’re at on your career and learning journey, National University is committed to supporting you at every step. Contact us to learn more today.