General Course Information for PHL238: Logical & Critical Thinking

Course: PHL238 - Logical & Critical Thinking
Textbook: For the correct edition of the textbook assigned to a specific class, go to:

Course Prerequisite(s):
Course Description:

Introduction to the fundamentals of logic and critical thinking. Focuses on the core skills of logical analysis, argumentation, recognition of fallacious reasoning, linguistic structural analysis, introductory levels of propositional and categorical argumentation, and various forms of inductive reasoning. Broadens the student's abilities to engage in the lifelong-learning processes of self-inquiry and self-reflection and promotes effective communication and an awareness of diverse perspectives in all areas of thought and inquiry.

Course Learning Outcomes:
  • Demonstrate a firm grasp of logical concepts and critical-thinking skills through the creation of arguments, written critiques, and position papers in which the student expresses and assesses his or her own beliefs and ideas and assesses and evaluates the beliefs and ideas of others.
  • Recognize the importance of seeing issues from diverse perspectives in fostering self-reflection, curiosity, civic-mindedness, personal initiative, and intellectual independence throughout one's lifetime.
  • Utilize principles of logic and critical thinking as tools that support lifelong learning and enable a comprehensive approach to tasks requiring analysis and evaluation of competing points of view.
  • Critically assess the credibility and value of information sources and various forms of media that purport to transmit knowledge and information.
  • Identify arguments, reasons, conclusions, premises, and suppressed assumptions present in all areas of human discourse.
  • Recognize the kinds of ambiguities that cloud language and the formal and informal fallacies that obscure rational thinking in all areas of life.
  • Compose a sophisticated argumentative research paper that critically analyzes, evaluates, and responds to another author's argument for a position on a significant issue using the particular formatting and documentation style appropriate to their discipline.

Students with Disabilities:
Students seeking special accommodations due to a disability must submit an application with supporting documentation, as explained under this subject heading in the General Catalog. Instructors are required to provide such accommodations if they receive written notification from the University.

Writing Across the Curriculum:
Students are expected to demonstrate writing skills in describing, analyzing and evaluating ideas and experiences. Written reports and research papers must follow specific standards regarding citations of an author's work within the text and references at the end of the paper. Students are encouraged to use the services of the University's Writing Center when preparing materials.

The following website provides information on APA, MLA, and other writing and citation styles that may be required for term papers and the like:

National University Library:
National University Library supports academic rigor and student academic success by providing access to scholarly books and journals both electronically and in hard copy. Print materials may be accessed at the Library in San Diego or through document delivery for online and regional students. Librarians are available to provide training, reference assistance, and mentoring at the San Diego Library and virtually for online or regional students. Please take advantage of Library resources:


Contact the Library:

  • (858) 541-7900 (direct line)
  • 1-866-NU ACCESS x7900 (toll free)

Use the Library Training Tools (on the Library Homepage) for additional help

  • Recorded class presentations
  • Tutorials & Guides (APA/MLA, Peer-Review, and more)

Plagiarism is the presentation of someone else's ideas or work as one's own. Students must give credit for any information that is not either the result of original research or common knowledge. If a student borrows ideas or information from another author, he/she must acknowledge the author in the body of the text and on the reference page. Students found plagiarizing are subject to the penalties outlined in the Policies and Procedures section of the University Catalog, which may include a failing grade for the work in question or for the entire course. The following is one of many websites that provide helpful information concerning plagiarism for both students and faculty:

Ethical behavior in the classroom is required of every student. The course will identify ethical policies and practices relevant to course topics.

Students are expected to be competent in using current technology appropriate for this discipline. Such technology may include word processing, spreadsheet, and presentation software. Use of the internet and e-mail may also be required.

Learning to work with and value diversity is essential in every class. Students are expected to exhibit an appreciation for multinational and gender diversity in the classroom.

As a diverse community of learners, students must strive to work together in a setting of civility, tolerance, and respect for each other and for the instructor. Rules of classroom behavior (which apply to online as well as onsite courses) include but are not limited to the following:

  • Conflicting opinions among members of a class are to be respected and responded to in a professional manner.
  • Side conversations or other distracting behaviors are not to be engaged in during lectures, class discussions or presentations
  • There are to be no offensive comments, language, or gestures